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Electrostatic Machine

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In 1650, the famous inventor of the air pump Mayor of Magdeburg, Otto von Guericke (1602-1686 Gg.) Produced a ball of sulfur "the size of a child's head, planted it on an iron axle, mounted on a wooden tripod. With handles the ball could be rotated and polished palms of hands or a piece of cloth is pressed to the ball with his hand. It was the first elementary electrostatic machine.

Guericke was able to observe faint glow in the dark electrified the world and, more importantly, for the first time to discover that a feather, drawn ball, after some time repelled by him - a phenomenon not Guericke nor many of his contemporaries for a long time could not explain. From a letter by the famous German scholar G. W. Leibniz (1646-1716 years). Gericke (March 1672), that Leibniz, to use his vehicle and watched the electric spark - this is the first mention of this mysterious phenomenon.

During the first half of the XVIII century. electrostatic machine has undergone several improvements: a ball of sulfur was replaced by the glass, because glass is harder electrify and, later, instead of balls or cylinders (which are harder to make and when heated, they often explode) began to use glass discs. For the grating used leather pads pressed against the glass springs. Later, to increase the electrification pads were covered with amalgam.

Electrostatic machine opens up new properties of electricity

An important new element in the construction machines became conductor (1744) - a metal tube suspended on silk threads, and later mounted on isolators. The conductor had served as a container for collecting electric charges formed during sliding. After the invention of the Leyden jar, they also installed near the machine.

In the 60's. XVIII century. electrostatic machine has become the main modern features. Very original, simple and reliable electrostatic machines have been described in the book of the famous Russian scientist Andrei encyclopedic Timofeyevich Bolotov (1738-1833 years.) "Summary and in the experience-based observations of elektritsizme and the ability of electrical Mahin to pomoganiyu of various diseases (STD, 1803 ). They were created even room "folding" and "road" car with a diameter of a glass ball 20 cm

In an effort to get the best effect, some inventors constructed car oversized: for example, in London, filed electrostatic machine with a diameter of disc 2 m 27 cm, and its rotation carried the steam engine (1849).

Various experiments with electrostatic machines and advances in the field of natural science is attracting considerable interest to the electric to magnetic phenomena and led to the discovery of previously unknown facts. Were found two kinds of electricity and revealed the laws of their interaction, set "quick transfer of electricity."
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